27 – Teen Drugged Driving: What You Can Do About It

August 25, 2014 | Posted in Drugged Driving, Podcast Episodes

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Did you know that:

  • 1 in 8 weekend nighttime drivers tested positive for illicit drugs in 2007?
  • 1 in 3 fatally injured drivers who were tested, tested positive for some type of illicit drug in 2010?
  • In a national survey of high school seniors, 1 in 8 admitted to using marijuana and then driving in the 2 weeks prior to the survey?

Drugged Driving is a global problem where more people are using some type of drug, whether it is over-the-counter, prescribed, or illicit, and then trying to drive. Many drugs affect our mental and/or physical abilities; that means our driving abilities are impaired if we try to drive after taking the drug. But there are actions we can all take to be aware and proactive in ending this killer.

RADD-ONDCP Teen Drugged Driving Summit

RADD-ONDCP Teen Drugged Driving Summit

ONDCP Acting Director Botticelli addresses those at the Summit

To discuss drugged driving and more specifically teen drugged driving, RADD and the Office of the National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) co-hosted the nation’s first comprehensive public forum on teen drugged driving. The summit brought together government leaders, scientific experts and community leaders for an in-depth discussion on the latest research and strategies to protect young drivers.

While present at this ground-braking summit, I spoke with a number of the speakers and dignitaries and got their viewpoints on drugged driving and its impact on today’s teens. This episode is a compilation of their comments and an examination of the teen drugged driving issue.

In this episode you will hear from (in alphabetical order):

  • Jonathan Adkins, Executive Director, GHSA
  • Michael Botticelli, Acting Director, ONDCP
  • Jason Demeter, National Student Leadership Council, SADD
  • Dr. James Lange, Research Director, RADD
  • Erin Meluso, President, RADD
  • Sgt. Wesley Stought, Ohio DRE Coordinator, OSHP
  • Penny Wells, President & CEO, SADD
  • Michael Witter, Region 5 Administrator, NHSTA
RADD-ONDCP Teen Drugged Driving Summit

A panel discussion on what is being done to prevent teen drugged driving

Based on our conversations, we examine three questions:

  1. Is teen drugged driving a problem?
  2. What do we mean when we say “drugged driving?”
  3. What do we do about it?

Is Teen Drugged Driving A Problem?

There is no question that drugged driving, and teen drugged driving is a problem. The number and percentage of people who are driving and testing positive for drugs is increasing at a steady rate. A conservative estimate now shows that drugged driving causes 20% of the crashes in the U.S.

Part of the reason for the increasing numbers is the lack of awareness of the issue. MADD and other organizations have done a fantastic job in stigmatizing drinking alcohol and driving, however, the message hasn’t carried over to include other drugs.   There is this mistaken belief that by using certain drugs, including marijuana, we are safer drivers. The research proves otherwise. Any drug that impacts our mind, also impacts our driving skills.

What do we mean when we say “Drugged Driving?”

Drugged Driving is more than illicit drugs.

Drugged Driving is more than illicit drugs.

When many people hear the phrase “drugged driving” they automatically think of illegal drugs. However that is only a portion of the drugs causing the burgeoning drugged driving crisis. Drugged driving does occur with the use of illicit drugs, but it can also happen with the use of prescription or over-the-counter medication.   Most drugs are designed to affect us, even when used as instructed, such as: reducing pain, stopping an allergic reaction or helping us to fall asleep. It is that effect that can also impair our driving abilities. Labels on medicine bottles commonly have the phrase: “Do not drive or operate heavy machinery while taking the medicine.” A car is heavy machinery. When taking any type of medicine it is important to read the labels and understand how it will affect you.

Drugged driving also includes the use of illicit drugs such as heroin, methamphetamine, and marijuana. The NHTSA Roadside Survey from 2007 found that of the nighttime drivers tested, marijuana was the most commonly detected illicit drug followed by Cocaine and Methamphetamine.

States like Colorado and Washington now allow the use of marijuana and its impact on our highways has grown significantly. This is also true in those states that have “medical marijuana.” In a report entitled: The Legalization of Marijuana in Colorado—The Impact, the percentage of traffic fatalities where the driver tested positive for marijuana doubled from 2007 to 2012. This is in spite of a 14.8% reduction in overall traffic fatalities during the same time.

What can we do about Teen Drugged Driving?

RADD President Meluso addresses those at the Summit.

RADD President Meluso addresses those at the Summit.

The first response to this question from everyone was the essential requirement of increasing the awareness of drugged driving. We all need to learn more about the issue, understand that drugged driving is occurring everywhere and find out what are some steps we can take to prevent it. Furthermore, going beyond an understanding of the issue, there has to be a self-awareness of any drug use. Too many people do not understand the risks many drugs create; they are taking the drugs and then driving, putting themselves and everyone else on the road in harms way. One useful tool in raising awareness is the ONDCP Teen Drugged Driving: Community Awareness Activity Toolkit. The toolkit provides community groups with the facts on the dangers of teen drugged driving, and activities to assist in its prevention.

Parental involvement was the second answer to the question of ending teen drugged driving. Parents play a pivotal role in educating their teens. As a parent, you can provide good information to your children along with setting clear expectations on what is the expected behavior. As declared by ONDCP Director Botticelli: “Parents are probably the best prevention program that we have.”

Everyone also agreed that to impact teen drugged driving, teens must be at the table, assisting with the development of the message as well as sharing it with other teens. Peer-to-peer messaging is one of the most effective methods of sharing a message; we are more likely to listen to our peers than an outsider who is trying to influence us. This is true for adults as well as teens.

RADD-ONDCP Teen Drugged Driving Summit

NTSB Acting Chairman Hart addresses those at the Summit.

Finally, besides raising awareness, there was the recognition that law enforcement has to be involved in the process. NTSB Acting Chairman Hart noted that it takes legislation, education and enforcement to change behavior. One group of officers actively involved in preventing drugged driving are known as DREs (Drug Recognition Experts). DREs are specially trained officers who recognize the symptoms of someone under the influence of a drug. All 50 states have the DEC (Drug Evaluation & Classification) program as well as a number of other countries and it is showing results. Using a systematic process, DREs examine a driver to determine if a driver is impaired by drug(s) and what category of drug(s) may be causing the impairment. The research demonstrates that the DEC program is reliable and effective.

Conclusion

There is now a wealth of information on the dangers of drugged driving and it is up to all of us to get the facts and share the message. Parents need to step up and learn about the risks and share that information with the family and the community. Teens must start speaking up and let everyone know what is happening and that it must stop.

To end drugged driving requires action by all of us; not just parents, not just teens, not just community leaders, not just law enforcement officers, but everyone. Ending drugged driving will require a comprehensive approach. Yet, when considering the number of lives that will be saved, what could be more important? The time is now, step up, speak out, and save a life.

Additional Information

To watch video recordings of my conversations with these and other dignitaries, check out this webpage on my Traffic Safety Guy website. Finally, I wish to express my gratitude to RADD for arranging the opportunity to speak with everyone. It was a fantastic opportunity.

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ONDCP Acting Director Botticelli discusses Teen Drugged Driving

RADD President Erin Meluso discusses Teen Drugged Driving

 

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22 – Child Safety Seats and Booster Seats: A Parental Obligation in Today’s Society

June 16, 2014 | Posted in Child Safety Seats, Podcast Episodes

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Children, infants and older, can be the most vulnerable individuals in a car crash. That is why as a parent or grandparent, child safety seats and booster seats are two of the most important things you can purchase for your car.

Child Safety Seat

Deborah Hersman speaking at a Child Safety Seat Event

Deborah Hersman and Traffic Safety

Former NTSB Chairman Deborah Hersman is passionate about having all young children sitting in properly installed child safety seats and booster seats. Before stepping down from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), she and I had the great opportunity to discuss child safety seats and booster seats.[1]

A leading safety advocate, Ms. Hersman provided guidance for the NTSB and the United States on what can be done to make our roads and highways safer.   For her, child safety seats are important because they are designed for those individuals who can’t speak for themselves, our children.

Great Advances

The fantastic news is that in her lifetime we have seen tremendous positive change on attitudes about child safety seats. Ms. Hersman discusses briefly about her childhood and sitting in the back seat, without wearing a seat belt, and how that evolution changed because of expectations on military bases where her father was stationed, and now from her understanding of why it is important for everyone to always wear a seat belt. Because of that knowledge, her children were required to sit in child safety seats and then booster seats.

Finding and Using the Right Safety Seat

When buying a child safety seat, parents have a lot of great choices and that’s important because families have different needs. Whether the child is large or small, has physical issues, or the family has multiple children, there are options available. But with those choices comes responsibility.

Child Safety Seats

Booster seats are the next phase after child safety seats

As a parent, you need to purchase the right seat and then recognize that your child will grow. Just like buying new shoes for your kids, your child will grow out of the seat. It is important to start with a rear-facing seat because that seat will provide the most protection possible for a newborn or infant, and then keep her or him in that rear-facing seat for as long as possible. Then it is onto a forward facing seat. Each step along the way, making sure that the seat fits properly and provides appropriate protection.

Booster Seats are the Next Phase

Once a child grows out of a child safety seat, a parent’s reasonability doesn’t end. At that point, it is time for a booster seat. Booster seats allow children to use seat belts that are designed for adults. The lap belt of a seats belt is supposed to go across the hipbone and shoulder strap across the sternum. But for young children, without that booster seat, the straps can go across the stomach or the neck, which are areas that can create significant harm if in a crash.

A child should not be using a seat belt until she or he is at the right height. Even though many states use age as a determining factor, it is the child’s height that should be determined before moving to seat belts. A parent should examine the length of the child’s femur and determine if the child can sit with his or her back against the car seat and have her or his knees bend comfortably. If the knees don’t break over the seat easily, then the child will slouch, which defeats the whole purpose of a seat belt. Typically, a child should be 57 inches tall. The issue is that most children don’t get to a sufficient height until around age 11, which is beyond the age most states require for booster seat. This is again, where a parent’s responsibility comes into play; keeping your child safe beyond what the law requires.

Child Safety Seat

Always have your child seat inspected by an expert.

Is Your Child Safety Seat Installed Correctly?

Buying the child safety seat or booster seat is not the only obligation for a parent—it is also making sure the seat is installed correctly, and that can be challenging. As Ms. Hersman notes, when installing a child seat for one of her children, she and her husband read and followed the instructions. Afterwards, they were confident the seat was installed correctly. While at the NTSB, she became a certified technician to install child safety seats and after two days at the weeklong training, she went home and took the seat out because she learned it was not installed correctly. Even well meaning parents can get it wrong. For her, it highlighted the necessity of having parents allow an expert to examine a child’s seat and determine if the installation is correct. The best part of any inspection is that the vast majority of them are free.

Always Use Your Child Seat

With knowledge comes responsibility and as Ms. Hersman stated, a child’s safety is non-negotiable. With the child safety seat or booster seat purchased and properly installed, it now becomes incumbent to use it—every ride, every time.

Many of today’s parents were not raised using child safety seats or booster seats. However, society’s knowledge and understanding has advanced. We now understand the importance of these life saving products. Learning that we can do something better and safer requires action by all of us. At times it can just take education, at other times it takes action by law enforcement officers. But either way, as parents and grandparents, you can evolve and change your behavior and act for the benefit of those silent voices, keeping your children as safe as possible whenever in a car.

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Deborah Hersman speaking at a Child Safety Seat Event

 

 

[1] Deborah Hersman is now President and CEO for the National Safety Council (NSC).

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17 – Your Cell Phone: It’s Not Worth the Risk

www.highwaytosafety.com

April 7, 2014 | Posted in Distracted Driving, Podcast Episodes

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“When you decide not to wear your seat belt, you are pretty much endangering only your own life.  But when you elect to talk on the cell phone or text, you are not only endangering your own life, you’re endangering the lives of pedestrians and others.” These words were said to National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Member Robert Sumwalt at an NTSB Distracted Driving Summit by family members of a loved one killed by a distracted driver.

April is Distracted Driving Awareness Month

www.highwaytosafety.com

Robert Sumwalt, NTSB Board Member

April is Distracted Driving Awareness Month and the Traffic Safety Guy is hosting a four-part series on Distracted Driving: what it is and what we can do about it.  The series kicks off with a discussion with NTSB Board Member Robert Sumwalt.

In 2012 distracted driving in the United States alone resulted in at least:

  • 3,328 fatalities
  • 410,000 injuries

The research reveals that someone who texts and drives is 23 times more likely to be in a crash and that 40% of American teens say that they have been in a car when the driver used a cell phone in a way that put people in danger. Expert after expert now declares distracted driving an epidemic.

Distraction a Top Priority at NTSB

The NTSB has taken a strong stand on distraction in general, and cell phones and other “portable electronic devices” (PEDs) specifically, recognizing that distraction in all modes of transportation is dangerous. In January 2014, the NTSB announced its “Most Wanted List” for the 2014 year. “Eliminating Distraction in Transportation” is on that list of 10 priorities.

www.trafficsafetyguy.com

Texting is one of the most dangerous distractions while driving

In this episode Member Sumwalt candidly discusses what needs to be done about distracted driving, noting that cell phone use is one of the most pressing concerns.  Almost all states have some form of a ban on texting, whether it is focused on teens or all drivers, because texting is recognized as a major contributor to distracted driving.  However, only a handful of states have a ban on hand held cell phones and no state or locality has a complete ban on the use of drivers using a cell phone, hands free or not.

Time for a Complete Ban

Late in 2011, NTSB called for a nationwide ban on the use of portable electronic devices while driving.  Hands free cell phone use is no safer than holding the phone in your hand; it is the mind that is distracted from the task for driving.  Member Sumwalt continues this call for action, noting that to have an impact on distracted driving there must be good education, good laws, and strong enforcement of those laws.

It is time to have a social stigma attached to driving while using a cell phone, just as it now is socially unacceptable to drink too much and drive.  Member Sumwalt pointed out that it took time for the attitude change in drinking and driving and it will probably take time to change the mindset regarding cell phones.  One way to start that change is for parents to model for their children what it is to be a safe driver, which includes not using a cell phone while driving.

Businesses Are Taking Action

More companies are implementing complete cell phone bans while driving.

More companies are implementing complete cell phone bans while driving.

In 2009, NTSB instituted an agency policy that no employee of NTSB shall use a cell phone while driving.  Member Sumwalt indicated that the policy worked to change behavior at the agency, and to lead by example.

But it is not only NTSB that has instituted this policy.  A few years back, the National Safety Council did a survey of Fortune 500 companies about their cell phone policies.  Looking at potential liability and employee safety, 18% of the companies that responded indicated they had instituted a complete ban on the use of cell phones while driving, including Shell Oil, DuPont, BP, Abbott, Cargill, and Time Warner Cable.

Notably, the vast majority of businesses indicated that there was no reduction in work production, and one-in-five indicated that they had seen a reduction in crashes and property damage.

Why Risk It?

Ultimately, as pointed out by Member Sumwalt, the NTSB recommendations are based on solid research into the underlying cause of crashes.  As he asked during the discussion, the real question is: “What makes this phone call so important that I am going to risk my life and the lives of others?”

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14 – Drowsy Driving: Take the Time to Sleep

March 1, 2014 | Posted in Drowsy Driving, Podcast Episodes

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“Anyone who is human and gets behind the wheel [of a car] should worry about it.”  NTSB Board Member Mark Rosekind speaking on drowsy driving.

Dr. Mark Rosekind, NTSB Board Member

Dr. Mark Rosekind, NTSB Board Member

“There will be sleep enough in the grave.” How many times have we heard someone say something similar, implying that he or she doesn’t need or have time for sleep?  Ben Franklin made that statement over 200 years ago and it is still used today, sometimes as a badge of honor.  In today’s culture, with many of us traveling in large and potentially deadly weapons on a road or highway, mixing the lack of sleep with driving is a deadly combination. However, there are practical steps each of us can take to avoid these dangers, with acknowledgement of the existence of drowsy driving being the first.

Dr. Mark Rosekind, Board Member of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and one of the world’s foremost human fatigue experts, examines the fallacy that we can put sleep off to a later time.  As human beings, we are hardwired for sleep. We have to breath, we have to eat, we have to drink, and we have to sleep. It is a biological requirement for our survival.  Starting with that premise, Dr. Rosekind discusses:

  • How much sleep we need
  • What happens when we don’t get a sufficient amount of sleep
  • How fatigue plays a role in drowsy driving, and
  • What we can do about driving and fatigue

Having a “Sleep Debt”

As we age the amount of sleep needed each night changes.  What many people do not understand is that teens actually need 9¼ hours of sleep, not the typical 8 hours mentioned.  What is especially concerning is that  in high school teenagers get on average 6½ hours of sleep.  They may think that they are 90 minutes short on sleep, but they are actually more than two hours below what is needed.  Adults need 7-9 hours or an average of 8 hours.  This is  true as we age and become senior citizens, although in our later years our sleep patterns are broken up.  We still need the 8 hour average, however, it is not as refreshing thus it is often harder to get a good night’s sleep. Many retirees enjoy a mid-day nap to help make up for the lost overnight sleep. This is why teens and senior citizens are considered higher risks for drowsy driving.

Drowsy Driving

Sleep is a human necessity.

When we don’t get sufficient sleep, we start to build up a “sleep debt.” One night of poor sleep, and our abilities are affected.  If we don’t get sufficient sleep a second night, the sleep debt increases. Go a third night, and it continues to accumulate.  Go three nights with 2 hours lack of sleep each night, and the sleep debt is up to 6 hours.  In a single night, losing 2 hours of sleep can result in a person acting as if they were at a .05 BrAC (Breath Alcohol Content).[1] With a sleep debt, our attention, reaction time and decision making are all significantly effected by as much as 20-50%. A slower reaction time or making a poor decision means not reacting to the brake lights in front of us or seeing the traffic light turning red. Falling asleep while driving can have devastating consequences.

Drowsy Driving’s Impact is Underestimated

How dangerous is drowsy driving?  There are estimates in the U.S. that annually we could be looking at a million or more crashes or near crashes – 20% of all crashes could be due to fatigue.  All the experts agree that the number of crashes and fatalities due to fatigue is underestimated.

According to the Automobile Association of America (AAA) two out of every five drivers (41.0%) reported having fallen asleep or nodding off while driving, and that one in four reported that they had fallen asleep between the hours of noon and 5 p.m.  Drowsy driving happens during the night and during the day.

Drowsy driving is a problem no matter where we live or travel.  Last year in India, a bus crashed, killing 45 people.  One media outlet reported that the driver admitting he dozed off while driving.  Pick any country, and you can find reports of drowsy driving.

Possible Solutions to Drowsy Driving?

Drowsy Driving

A nap can be very beneficial

Many of us, when we notice we are sleepy while driving, try to “fix” it by turning up the radio or opening the window, or biting a lip.  These “remedies” work for only about 10 minutes.  Caffeine can provide a short-term jolt, but even that is limited in time and needs to be taken before feeling tired since it requires time for us to feel the effects. Bottom line: We are still sleep deprived and we are still dangerous as we drive down the road.

The only real solution to drowsy driving is sleep, whether it is finding a safe place to stop and get a short nap, such as at a Rest Area or a good night’s sleep before leaving. 

3-Step Checklist Before Traveling

To be prepared for any drive, Dr. Rosekind provides a three-step checklist:

  1. Recognize that fatigue is a risk and ask:
    • Do you have a sleep debt from the last night or a combination of nights?
    • How long have you been awake at this point?
    • What is the time of day when the driving is occurring?
    • Do you have a sleep disorder?
  2. If fatigue is an issue, take a nap or get some caffeine.
  3. Be sensitive to the environment. Are you driving at night or on a monotonous road? Driving in these conditions can reveal your fatigue.

Individually, each of these steps can raise a red flag.  Combined, they ensure we consider what condition we are in, and whether we are safe to travel.  Reviewing this checklist can save lives.  In the meantime, get a good night’s sleep.

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[1] .08 BrAC is the level when a person is presumed to be under the influence of alcohol in the United States and some countries.  A majority of countries have .05 BrAC or lower as the illegal limit.

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13—Driving and Marijuana—A Dangerous Combination

Drugged Driving

February 15, 2014 | Posted in Drugged Driving, Podcast Episodes

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Drugged Driving

Chris Halsor, Colorado TSRP

For years individuals and organizations everywhere have talked about, and continue to work on combating, the dangers of alcohol-impaired driving. As a result, there has been a significant reduction in alcohol-impaired fatalities. However, impaired driving due to drugs other than alcohol, sometimes called “Drugged Driving,” is a growing concern across the United States and beyond. One of the most common drugs found in substance-impaired driving fatalities is marijuana.

Mr. Chris Halsor is the Traffic Safety Resource Prosecutor (TSRP) [1] in Colorado, where marijuana was first approved by state residents for medicinal use, and more recently for legal recreational use. [2] With the changes in the law, [3] Mr. Halsor has seen a troubling increase in drugged driving cases involving marijuana.

Impairment from Marijuana

Based on the science and the research, there is no question that marijuana impairs a person’s mental and physical? abilities. It is wrong to believe that marijuana use does not result in impaired driving. It is a scientific fact: Marijuana use increases the risk of being in a fatal crash.

Drugged Driving

Of significant concern is the public’s misunderstanding of the signs of marijuana impairment. Message after message has shown alcohol-impaired individuals with slurred speech, poor balance, and problems walking. Mental impairment is actually a greater issue because 1) driving is a complicated task requiring a person to focus on a number of critical factors simultaneously, and 2) alcohol affects a person’s mind and judgment before the physical signs are visible—meaning a person is already mentally impaired by the time the physical signs are observed. Mr. Halsor noted that the predominant marijuana-induced impairment affects a person’s judgment. The impairment is less about the physical response, but that does not make it any less dangerous than alcohol.

The increasing potency of Delta 9 THC is another concern when considering a person’s impairment. Delta 9 THC is the active impairing ingredient in marijuana. Several years ago the THC concentration was typically under 10%, even as low as  2-6% in a “joint.” Now, the potency is significantly higher and marijuana stores in Colorado advertise this increased potency. It is not uncommon to see ads for 20% potency or greater. It has become a race to the top, resulting in greater impairment.

Putting the THC concentrate into a variety of foods also creates problems. Adding the concentrate to food products results in delayed impairment. People consume these products, do not initially feel any effects and then drive, with the effects impacting them while driving.

Drugged Driving and Per Se Drug Laws

Many states have passed a ‘per se’ law, similar to the .08 breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) per se law for alcohol. Colorado passed a modified per se law that allows jurors to infer impairment if a person has 5 nanograms or greater of THC in their blood.

One argument against a per se law is that marijuana stays in the body for up to 30 days. However, Delta 9 THC is generally in the blood only 1 to 3 hours. The THC that is found in the body days later is THC-COOH, an inactive non-impairing metabolite.

Supplemental Material

Shortly after NTSB’s announcement of the NTSB Most Wanted List in January 2014, the Traffic Safety Guy was able to briefly speak with NTSB Board Member Dr. Mark Rosekind. I asked him about substance impaired driving and the issues marijuana is causing for safe driving. His response is part of this episode.

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[1] A TSRP provides traffic-related education, research and technical assistance to prosecutors and law enforcement, with an emphasis on impaired driving.

[2] Marijuana is still considered an illegal drug by the U.S. Federal Government; thus, there is a dispute on whether or not the drug is legal.

[3] This episode is not a discussion on the pros and cons of legalizing marijuana. The focus is marijuana’s impact on traffic safety.

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01 – Impaired Driving: NTSB’s Plan to End It

September 28, 2013 | Posted in Impaired Driving, Podcast Episodes

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Impaired driving has been a part of our culture for over a century, with nearly 10,000 people now killed annually.  Can we stop it, once and for all, so that no one else is killed by an impaired driver?

Impaired Driving

Dr. Mark Rosekind, NTSB Board Member

Dr. Mark Rosekind, NTSB (National Transportation Safety Board) Board Member, is a leading expert on the steps to take to end impaired driving. In this episode, Dr. Rosekind provides an overview of NTSB’s 19 research-based recommendations to achieve that goal.  These recommendations cover a wide variety of perspectives—everything from stopping the social drinker from taking the risk of driving after drinking, to getting the repeat DWI (Driving While Impaired) offender to change his or her behavior. The recommendations also look at a number of actions and tools that can be used in this critical effort, such as ignition interlocks, DWI courts, and sobriety checkpoints.  This conversation with Dr. Rosekind examines some of these topics in detail, including:

  • What ignition interlocks are and the critical role they play
  • The DADSS program (The car of the future?)
  • Reducing the BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration) from .08% to .05%, and
  • DWI Courts for the repeat DWI offender
Impaired Driving

NTSB’s Pyramid to End Impaired Driving

Laying out the steps NTSB took to develop these recommendations, and detailing what several of them mean, Dr. Rosekind provides a comprehensive discussion on how we can end impaired driving.  At the end of our conversation, Dr. Rosekind provides his suggestions on what we as individuals can do to make a difference and save lives.

Also during this episode, I talk about why we need a recommitment to stopping impaired driving, and an understanding what a .08% BAC means, referencing the B4U Drink Educator.

This podcast was also video-recorded.  You can watch some of the clips from this conversation by going to the Videos page on this website.

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